Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption in Nordic Schools

What do you see as the main challenges related to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry that Nordic schools will face over the next five years?

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NOTE: The Significant Challenges are sorted into three difficulty related categories based on their appearance in previous Horizon Report editions -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses to the trends below, feel free to explore why or why not the challenge should be in its specific category.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

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Challenge Name
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Achievement Gap
The achievement gap refers to an observed disparity in academic performance between student groups, especially as defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender. Environmental factors such as peer pressure, student tracking, negative stereotyping, and test bias are exacerbating this challenge. Schools use various success standards to define learning expectations, including grades, standardized test scores, and completion rates, leading to comparison of student performance at the individual and group level. Adaptive and personalized learning technologies are beginning to play a more integral role in identifying lower performing students and student populations, helping educators and leaders understand contributing factors, and enabling and scaling targeted intervention methods and engagement strategies that help close the gap. Global concerted action will be necessary, however, to address ongoing obstacles to education for children in countries experiencing civil unrest, as well as cultural barriers depriving females’ access to school.
  • This one will probably follow the general development in society. As the socioeconomical gaps widen between geographical areas as well as race/ethnicity this will be a severe challenge in Sweden at least. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016

Advancing Digital Equity
Digital equity refers to uneven access to high-speed broadband, a rampant social justice issue that is not just impacting developing nations. Pew Research reports that five million households with school-aged children are not privy to high-speed service. While more schools are benefiting from improved internet connectivity, the growing pervasiveness of blended learning approaches is illuminating new gaps between those with and without high-speed broadband; especially in countries that emphasize homework, students are increasingly expected to engage in learning activities outside of the classroom. For students from economically disadvantaged households, the availability of broadband and sufficient computing devices is not a given. This facet of digital equity is also referred to as the Homework Gap, and solving this challenge will take concerted efforts between policymakers and school leaders. Internet and technology providers such as Google are enabling greater access in low-income areas by providing entire cities with gigabit fiber connectivity. - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 I would add that this is about always-on access, more than about broadband in itself, and thus includes wifi, 3G, 4G, identity infrastructure, data access and other aspects - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
A rather old, but interesting article about the digital divide. It's not only about providing schools with tools. Kids from homes without the same resources as the rest, will learn "digital" as a second language. - karinnygards karinnygards Nov 21, 2016

Authentic Learning Experiences
Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in schools. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do.
I feel advancing towards authentic learning environments, materials and situations are more a trend than a challenge. Teachers are encouraged to give up textbooks and simulated learning situations and apply multidisciplinary real-world approach. Here's a link to my blog post about authentic learning:
- tiinsari tiinsari Oct 19, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016

Balancing our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With technology now at the center of many daily activities, higher education institutions must help learners understand how to balance their usage with other developmental needs. To prevent students from getting lost in the abundant sea of information and new media, universities and colleges should encourage mindful use of digital tools while making them aware of their digital footprint and the accompanying implications. As education aligns closer with technological trends, instructors will have to promote this balance, facilitating opportunities where students feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Striking a balance and guiding learners to personal success in their own habits is especially critical for incoming generations of students that have come to rely on technology. While there are plenty of studies and articles discussing healthy amounts of screen time for children, there are no prescribed or agreed upon models for adults when it comes to learning. Furthermore, institutions have a responsibility to ensure that when students are connected it is with the purpose of transformation — not just replicating an experience that could easily take place without technology. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016 - olli.vesterinen olli.vesterinen Nov 14, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
  • I would add to this the issue about balancing what we are expected to do by occupation (your teacher, your boss) and what your peers and family expect. We are constantly connected but our attention is divided a lot more since we have access to everyone at the same time, or rather they have access to us. The big question is - when do you have time for yourself? - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016
  • Really important to emphasize that the focus must be on the learning. Technology is a tool in the learning process and can make learning and learning situations possible that were not possible without technology. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016

Blending Formal and Informal Learning
Traditional approaches to teaching and learning with roots in the 18th century and earlier are still very common in many institutions, and often stifle learning as much as they foster it. As the Internet has brought the ability to learn something about almost anything at the palm of one’s hand, there is an increasing interest in the kinds of self-directed, curiosity-based learning that have long been common in museums, science centers, and personal learning networks. These, along with life experience and other more serendipitous forms of learning fall under the banner of informal learning, and serve to enhance student engagement by encouraging them to follow their own learning pathways and interests. Many experts believe that a blending of formal and informal methods of teaching and learning can create an education environment that fosters experimentation, curiosity, and above all, creativity. In this sense, an overarching goal is to cultivate the pursuit of lifelong learning in all students and educators. However, formally acknowledging and rewarding skills both educators and students master outside of the classroom is compounding this challenge.- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016

Competing Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to schools, especially for students whose needs are not being well served by the current system. Charter and online schools have particularly gained traction in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, there are more than 6,000 charter schools in the US alone with more than 1.9 million students enrolled, compared to over 98,000 public schools where 49.4 million students are enrolled. Most US states also offer and encourage enrollment in online courses, and some states are requiring students complete them in order to graduate. Adding to this challenge is the fact that many students do not formally attend either type of school; the National Center for Education Statistic reports that nearly 3% of the school-age population was home schooled during the 2010-11 school year. Ninety-one percent of the parents of these children cited concern over the environments of tradition and charter schools when asked about their choice. For school leaders and policy makers, the challenge is to meet such competition head on, offering high-quality alternatives to students who need them. As new platforms emerge, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, deep learning experiences, and assessment at scale.- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016

Creating Systemic Policy and Synergies for Better Learning
Technologies are not yet fully exploited in education across Nordic countries. Triggering large-scale sustainable changes requires shared efforts and focused actions, involving and engaging all stakeholders, policy-makers, local communities, school leaders, teachers, and learners. All Nordic countries have the digital skills integrated in their curriculum, but only Norway has a digital dimension that applies to all objectives in the curriculum. With some exceptions, many critical digital skills have not been made explicit in the competence objectives. Additionally, forms of assessment rarely include digital tools, and many pedagogies are only relatively adapted to the use of ICT. So even though digital competence is present in many of the countries initiatives, they have been insufficiently coordinated.- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016- Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Expanding Access
The global drive to increase the number of students participating in undergraduate education is placing pressure across the system. The oft-cited relationship between earning potential and educational attainment plus the clear impact of an educated society on the growth of the middle class is pushing governments to encourage more and more students to enter universities and colleges. In many countries, however, the population of students prepared for undergraduate study is already enrolled — expanding access means extending it to students who may not have the academic background to be successful without additional support. Many in universities feel that these institutions do not have sufficient time and resources to help this set of students.- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016

Fostering Digital Citizenship
This is a challenge that is partly covered above, but as this is the EU theme topic for this school year, I feel it’s only appropriate to add it here. Digital citizenship has been considered to cover 1. Internet safety (so that students don’t have to be afraid of abuse or bullying and that they don’t have to encounter hate talk and extremism) 2. Understanding of copyright, hacking, invasion of privacy and other legal restrictions of internet use and 3. Netiquette (correct behavior) and digital footprint (what you publish will remain in the net and possibly spread out). However, today, the focus has changed a bit from the word digital to the word citizenship. So, when raising digital citizens at school, we should also discuss sustainable and responsible use of technology and find ways to prevent the digital divide and exclusion caused by it. At school, it’s not only about learning to use technology in pedagogically meaningful way and learn computational thinking and other 21st century skills, but it's also about raising responsible and active digital citizens who can fully function in digitalized society and in the internet of people.- tiinsari tiinsari Nov 19, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Gaps Between Technology and Pedagogy
This is, of course, an old but always recurring challenge. The escalating pace in which new technologies are developed and invented keeps challenging education and pedagogy year after year. Within the framework of new educational technologies, it seems to be impossible to fully prepare for innovations that appear with such frequency. At the same time, they seem to hold so much promise for education that to fail to make use of the newest technology is to be left behind. Expertise in technology doesn’t meet expertise in pedagogy and vice versa. Often, as the result of lack in understanding either technology or pedagogy or both, decisions are made, that lead to schools buying device and applications that are not versatile and flexible enough for student-centered learning and don’t support sustainable development. - tiinsari tiinsari Oct 19, 2016- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016- marie.tangden marie.tangden Nov 14, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - ellen.k.fossvoll ellen.k.fossvoll Nov 15, 2016- jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 15, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
Another ('old') problem is BYOD especially in Primary Schools. As it of course is the cheapest way of having access to devices in the classroom (as students themselves have to bring their own device into school, so the school does not have to buy devices), it also creates challenges for the teacher - especially the teacher who is insecure or not actually really interested in new technology. Students might bring in different devices (iPads, Chromebooks, Windows devices etc.) which are not compatible when students are supposed to collaborate and exchange files in an easy way etc.. It also makes it more difficult for the teacher to choose which apps to use when students work on different platforms. The teacher will have to work with the lowest possible common denominator which may or may not support the wanted pedagogy. In this way technology may be a step backwards instead of the huge step forward it could be for teachers and students who can easily be innovative and creative when collaborating with peers. - jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 15, 2016
I would add the gap between pedagogy, technology and organizational structure/culture too. From my experience the organization need to adapt to the new digital environt as well as the pedagogy. It's not just about how teachers use technology in the classroom, they way teachers are allowed and expected to organize, communicate and collaborate in a digital environment is probably as important. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Implementing Knowledge and Success from Other Parts of Society
Nordic schools do not look to practices from other parts of society and industry as often as they should. Modernising education will require school leaders to analyse how other sectors have adapted to remain relevant, and also to learn from their mistakes. For example, the music industry underwent a complete overhaul when applications like iTunes U and Spotify emerged. Scandinavian schools have an opportunity to refine their organisational models to remain more agile. In the business of education, the consumers are the students, and there is a need to better cater to them as their expectations and behaviours evolve.- jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 14, 2016

Integrating Technology in Teacher Education
Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence, training in the digital-supported teaching methods is still too uncommon in teacher education and in the preparation of teachers. Teachers require extensive exposure to ICT to be able to evaluate and choose the most appropriate tools and resources. This need to be integrated in the teacher education, as "one-off traing is not sufficient. - ingrid.vinje ingrid.vinje Nov 4, 2016 - jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 14, 2016 - ellen.k.fossvoll ellen.k.fossvoll Nov 15, 2016- LREM LREM Nov 15, 2016 - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but digital media literacy is not yet the norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral. 21st Century teachers needs skills such as web editing, cloud storage and sharing solutions, social media, presentation software, and general multimedia. The teacher education need to invest in - and implement - long term ongoing training in digital skills. If we do not invest in their education, most teachers will never be able to keep up with the rapidly evolving digital technologies. - ingrid.vinje ingrid.vinje Nov 4, 2016- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016- marie.tangden marie.tangden Nov 14, 2016- jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 14, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - ellen.k.fossvoll ellen.k.fossvoll Nov 15, 2016- LREM LREM Nov 15, 2016 - jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 16, 2016 - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
One very important part of ICT literacy is networking skills. We don't learn things so much at classes or seminars anymore. They, too are more for networking than for learning. If we want to update our knowledge and keep up with the changes and developments in ICT, it's essential to be connected and belong to proper networks. In the new Finnish core curriculum, teachers are obliged to get networked (even internationally) and help their students to get connected internationally. Professional learning networks developing to learning communities are the most important teacher training instruments in the future. - tiinsari tiinsari Nov 16, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
  • We will not see the full effect of technology in school until a significant part of the current crop of teachers have retired. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 I wish we would THEN see the full effect of technology in schools. However, with teacher education NOT focusing on 21st century skills - including the use of technology - newly educated teachers will not reform pedagogy. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016
  • Many, if not the majority of in-service teachers, including the more 'mature' teachers, are very eager to be upskilled on 21st century skills and integration of technology, but professional development is slow and new more progressive methods seems to be urgently important. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016

Keeping Formal Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in school settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile.
in order to shine with Skilled Communication, Collaboration, Problem Solving, etc. technology skills are crucial to enhance the skills. Not using technology to enhance soft skills, will be less successful in the 21st century. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016

Major Changes in School Culture and Infrastructure
I think adapting new pedagogies and new technologies requires major changes in the way schools organize their work. It cannot be assumed that all teachers are experts in ICT and computational thinking, so, if we wish to integrate ICT in learning processes, teaching and learning have to be organized so that there’s a lot of co-teaching, bigger groups, perhaps, but several teachers with different expertise. Students may study in flexible groups cross grades and disciplines. Thus the school infrastructure should support different needs and diverse and flexible learning spaces. Schools should also provide means to more independent studies alone or in groups at school or at home. To prevent exclusion students need to be more engaged in learning. In practice this means more individualized learning paths that are planned together with the students so that they make use of their strengths and interests. This means a major change from hierarchical organization structure to more flexible structure with teachers and students working together in dialogue.- tiinsari tiinsari Nov 16, 2016
  • I'm convinced that digital technology is a shift that will need organizations to remodel to make full use of it. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
  • System Challenges The biggest challenge is now on the systems level, meaning both political understanding of how technologies might impact learning and teaching, and the institutional structures that hinder flexible transitions to using technologies in ways that move beyond the traditional classroom. Many teachers and classrooms are now making changes, but the system is not responding the same way to change. This also relates to the assessment system.~~~~
    Assessment changes are emerging, but the ownership of the assessment technology is not necessarily in the hands of the educators. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us.
Keeping up with technology
Over the past decade it has been made very obvious how schools have been left behind in the digitalization that hit the rest of the society. This could be both a good and a bad thing but in the long run education can't be too far apart from what we perceive as "reality". With the rise of the smart phone and social networks the gap has widened further, and we don't know what's next. I believe one challange for the future is how we can set up our organizations so that they can handle the upcoming changes that are likely to arrive. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016

Marketization of Education
At least in a Swedish context this has been a major challenge over the last couple of decades. This is not related directly to the digital transition but it's obvious that charter schools benefit from being more agile around what digital tools to use. They can respond faster to trends and set up digital learning platforms that are better designed to their selected group of students, giving them a market advantage at least in the short run. There is a risk that students in public schools will not benefit from technology development in the same way as their peers in charter schools. We're back to the issue about equity again I guess. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 20, 2016

Navigating Digital Competence
The challenge is that learning digital competence is different from applying digital tools in specific subjects, such as language and science, in the same manner that learning to read is different from using text to explain mathematics. However, in many discussions, these topics are often confused. Some Scandinavian thought leaders believe teacher education should involve them learning how to teach digital competence to their students, while others believe the primary lesson should be in using the technologies themselves in the disciplines they are teaching. The confusion between the two ideas often hinders the creation of cohesive policy and teacher education curriculum. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016- jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 15, 2016 - jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 16, 2016 - ellen.k.fossvoll ellen.k.fossvoll Nov 16, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Personalizing Learning
Personalized learning refers to the range of educational programs, learning experiences, instructional approaches, and academic support strategies intended to address the specific learning needs, interests, aspirations, or cultural backgrounds of individual students. The increasing focus on customizing instruction to meet students’ unique needs is driving the development of new technologies that provide more learner choice and allow for differentiated content delivery. Advances such as online learning environments and adaptive learning technologies make it possible to support students’ individual pathways. One major barrier is a lack of infrastructure within school systems to support dissemination of personalized learning technologies at scale. Compounding the challenge is the notion that technology alone is not the whole solution; personalized learning efforts must incorporate effective pedagogy and include teachers in the development process.- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Rethinking the Roles of Educators
Educators are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their schools; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders argue that institutions should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many institutions across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of educators. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways educators engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources. In a classroom without technology, a lecture can be an effective form of conveying information. But in a classroom with technology, the teacher is most valuable when he or she can guide exploration, digital reading and group discussion. This means less dicating and more focus on coaching and support. Instead of serving as data presenters, the future teachers will take the role as data synthesizers. - morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016- ingrid.vinje ingrid.vinje Nov 4, 2016- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016- marie.tangden marie.tangden Nov 14, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016- jette.risgaard jette.risgaard Nov 15, 2016 - jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 16, 2016 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016
- jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 17, 2016 - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Nov 17, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 Within the eCampus program for higher education in Norway, we identified the gap between educators and ICT, and the "lack of ownership" for ICT use in higher education by educators as one of the biggest challenges - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016
Teachers as consultants
I believe we've had an increasing trend of teachers becoming lecturers, consultants and marketers for different kinds of commercial initiatives over the last couple of years. Tech companies want to have credible sales people when they enter the still fairly new market of education and schools. This is drawing attention to the use of digitial tools from the perspective of sales and profit rather than pedagogical development I would argue. Although this doesn't have to be a bad thing I believe we need better knowledge in schools and municipalities when it comes to choosing which IT-tools to use. The process of bringing digital tools to school, or rather bringing schools into a digital context, is a delicate process that can easily be hampered by bad purchasing decisions. We've seen that all to well in Stockholm. Added to that the high demand for certain teachers will probably open up for consultant agencies to offer teachers to schools in a fashion we haven't seen before. I'm surprised this hasn't happed yet to be honest. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 20, 2016
[Editor's Note: Added here from RQ3.]

Scaling Teaching Innovations
Our organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation.- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016 - olli.vesterinen olli.vesterinen Nov 14, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 30, 2016

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data, such as the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the United States.106 As schools embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online and in 1:1 settings, researchers see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Schools around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but sometimes the safety of student data is threatened when third-party vendors provide low-cost software as a service in return for access to student data that they then profit from.- stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Nov 13, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016

Teaching Complex Thinking
It is essential for learners people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through complex thinking — to learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks and to deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. Mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. While some aspects of this topic could be framed as similar to or overlapping “design thinking,” for the purposes of this report, the two are considered as distinct concepts. The term “complex thinking” refers to the ability to understand complexity, a skill that is needed to comprehend how systems work in order to solve problems, and can be used interchangeably with “computational thinking.” Teaching coding in is increasingly being viewed as a way to instill this kind of thinking in students as it combines deep computer science knowledge with creativity and problem-solving.- helle.mathiasen helle.mathiasen Nov 13, 2016 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Nov 15, 2016 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Nov 18, 2016
Coding and computational thinking
How can this be useful in teaching and learning in general - and specifically in other areas than the technological ones? - Dorte Dorte Nov 20, 2016
[Editor's Note: Added here from RQ2.]

Under-resourced School Infrastructure
Critical school infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems.