Research Question 2: What important developments in technology are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.

a. What would you list among the established developments in technology that some educational institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What developments in technology that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should educational institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key technologies you see developing to the point that learning-focused institutions should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Brand New Topics Proposed by Panel



Accessibility Technologies
If the technology is available to everyone is not useful from a participation perspective. How and how will producers into groups such as sight, hearing and mobility impaired. It is best to arrive at a standard that is independent of the equipment used. As an example, the contact management features, the ability to have the text read, and the like.(- johnny.andersson johnny.andersson Oct 31, 2016) - olli.vesterinen olli.vesterinen Nov 14, 2016

Automated Course Authoring Technologies
ACA technologies are a way to create online assessment and gamification by less effort and cost through templates, themes and assets that can be changed though simple coding. By the ability ACA has to detect student preferences (AI) it can be changed to meet those preferences and hence increase motivation - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 19, 2016

Games and Gamification
In recent years, concepts such as game-based learning, gamification, educational apps and learning games have become part of teachers' vocabulary. It has gradually become evident the extent to which these concepts make great demands on practising professionals when implemented in daily practice.
if you want to combine games with learning, the first prerequisite must be a school or institution with the room for play, but the games must also be used in a reflective practice and sometimes contextualized, thus ceasing to be a game for a while. This means a learning space in which we didactically and pedagogically oscillate between the formal and the informal, and exploratory and experimental thinking plays with our didactics and pedagogy.
Most researchers (Gee, 2003; 2006; Salen et al., 2011; Bray, 2013) suggest that students’ desire for learning is increased in the context of game-based learning. The games encourage iterative processes because there is traditionally a “low cost of failing". This means that the games constitute learning environments in which chances can be taken. The games’ inherent gameplay, game rules and challenges together create authentic problem-based learning. Likewise, when the games are at their best, they also constitute collaborative environments with inherent scaffolding, in the form of paths, levels, interactive assistants, etc. In other words, game-based learning is supportive when it is well thought out and encourages well-functioning innovative thinking with the ability to think both horizontally, what happens if I do this, and vertically, why should I do this.
An interesting new game is Build a World
Games in teaching can challenge student’s learning and understanding of science by playing through realistic scenarios involving themes such as energy, environment, urban planning, pollution and sustainability.
These perspectives are the basis of the game Build a World. BaW is a block, sandbox game based on real-world physics and environments in which the player is exposed to what if scenarios:
For example, what happens if a city’s water level rises by three meters?
Or what if we converted the electricity production of a given area from nuclear to solar power?
Or what if we built a new town; how would it look like?
BaW gives teachers and students the opportunity to work with professional reflection and specific production, based on professionalism in interacting iterations. An additional layer for delving deeper into didactics is BAW’s options for integrating with, for example, GIS data. It may be motivating to use the users' local geographical area as the basis for the game or scenario.
BaW also incorporates the option to export 3D prints for pedagogical perspectives, using the game as a 3D modelling tool. - LREM LREM Nov 15, 2016
I do support the idea that in some learning situations gamification could be useful. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016- Dorte Dorte Nov 20, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016
- kristineploug kristineploug Dec 6, 2016

Haptic Interfaces
Tactile resources combined with digital tablets and apps
- The use of 3D tactile resources to interact with an app on a digital tablet in different subjects - ellen.k.fossvoll ellen.k.fossvoll Nov 15, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
(Services such as Canvas, Coursera and EdX)
They have been in the hype in higher education for some time and this technology is now being made available to childrens education. Most schools use some kind of SIS (Student information system - Schoolsoft, It´s learning, Fronter, Schoolity etc.) and often these systems are called LMS (Learning management systems) though there is little learning going on thru them. SIS evolved from the administrative and organisational side of education and schools, and that is what they are good at (at best), while MOOC tech came from the need to put pedagogical content on the web and steer students path thru it and enable their learning. Many teachers are putting their pedagogical content within the productivity suites provided them, such as Google Apps for education och Office 365. But these services don´t provide the kind of tailored condensed and interactive areas the MOOC services do. - lars.lingman lars.lingman Nov 17, 2016 Disagree with description of itslearning/Fronter as a SIS, those are LMSs, and requires SIS in the background. The rest of the argument stands, and may be seen in more detail in the Educause NGDLE documents - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016
In Denmark, The National Agency for It and Learning, will explore how assisted distance education (where the students will be educated online, assisted by a teacher or teaching assistant in their own classroom) can be used to accomplish equity in education. At small schools in Denmark, e.g. on the many small islands, it is difficult to recruit qualified teachers in several subjects. Assisted distance education might be a solution. At the same time, the teachers and researchers will test and explore ways to make distance education more interactive, and find new ways to use the interplay between the physical and the virtual rooms. The project and the study will be run by Centre for Teaching Development and Digital Media at Aarhus University, and it will take part at small schools in different parts of the country. The starting point is in January 2017 and the project lasts until June 2018. - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016


Combined with Existing RQ1 Technology Developments


Machine learning
Quest: As artificial intelligence is in the current list of Horizon Topics, the term machine learning should not be retired. - ingrid.vinje ingrid.vinje Nov 10, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016
Thanks to Facebook, Amazon and Google, the terms artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning have become widespread. They are often used interchangeably, but are not quite the same thing. While AI can be understood as a branch of computer science attepting to build machines capable of intelligent behaviour, Stanford University defines machine learning as "the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed". We need AI reseachers to build smart machines, but we need machine learning experts to make them truly intelligent. [[user:ingrid.vinje|- morten.soby morten.soby Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016
[Editor's Note: Good points. We will add this discussion to artificial intelligence and rename the topic AI/Machine Learning]

Wellbeing meets technology, reflection and quantified self
Every child and adult could increase their wellbeing through balancing their day in terms of essential mental activities. At a same time people are more and more interested in numbers related to their body and mind. Wellbeing connects with learning outcomes and more and more it will be one of the key foci in educational systems around the world.
http://www.mindplatter.com/
http://digitalmindfulness.net/
http://www.digitalnutrition.com.au/
http://quantifiedself.com/
- olli.vesterinen olli.vesterinen Nov 14, 2016
[Editor's Note: Wearable Technology is already an existing topic in RQ1 and Quantified Self is an important dimension of that, therefore this discussion will be added there.]



Combined with Existing Trends in RQ3


Technologies able to test 21st Century skills
How can we test 21st Century Skills and computational thinking? By which criteria should we evaluate these? These questions will soon be answered and therefore test technology is an important topic. OECD is already working with this theme: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/Draft%20PISA%202015%20Collaborative%20Problem%20Solving%20Framework%20.pdf - jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 17, 2016
[Editor's Note: Great point. This is very much covered in the several trends in RQ3 related to measuring learning and better assessment methods, therefor this discussion will be added to RQ3.]

Local Data
Big Data is one of the topics but micro data/local data is missing. The most important development in data and learning is to move the use of data as close as possible to the teacher and the student. That'll include using both big data (finding trends) and micro data for following progression with each student. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Nov 17, 2016 - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016
[Editor's Note: This also fits in with the numerous discussions unfolding about assessment and measuring learning in RQ3 and will be added there.]

User experience
- martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 So this is nothing new but still many times overlooked when it comes to design of many services and technology. Of course the capacitive screen on smart phones was a major breakthrough facilitating a whole new use of digital technology for the broader public. There is still a lot to do in this area to support engagement and learning processes. I would consider NUI being part of this domain that covers use of technology from a human perspective. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Nov 21, 2016
Agreed. And this brings me over to interaction design which is closely linked to user experience. A central concern in this approach is to develop usable and interactive products. The aim of interaction design is to develop products that are effective to use, easy to learn, and to provide a satisfying user experience. The design of interactive products require a consideration of the people who are going to use the product, how it will be used, and where it is going to be used. Another point of interest is understanding what kind of activities the users are doing while they are interacting with the product.
A key question should be how one can optimize the user's interactions with an environment, system or product, so that they can extend and support the user's activities in useful, usable and effective ways. - ingrid.vinje ingrid.vinje Nov 18, 2016
[Editor's Note: This fits in with existing RQ3 Trend "Prioritization of User Experience" so this discussion will be added there.]

Open Learning
- martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 Open data is getting around more and more, which is sometimes great is understood and used well. Open learning could be the concept where students are allowed to more openly through technology assess their own learning and results. Not just for themselves and their teacher but also in a healthy environment of constructive peer feedback. We have also seen how students are more deeply engaged in school work when the goal is to produce something that will be published on the web (for example http://bookis.se/ - stefan stefan Nov 20, 2016
[Editor's Note: This fits in with existing RQ3 trend "Proliferation of Open Educational Resources" so this discussion will be added there.]

Combined with Existing Challenges in RQ4


Coding and computational thinking
How can this be useful in teaching and learning in general - and specifically in other areas than the technological ones? - Dorte Dorte Nov 20, 2016
[Editor's Note: This fits in well with existing RQ4 challenge "Teaching Complex Thinking" which specifically covers computational thinking. Coding is also a trend in RQ3.]


Other Key Insights


- martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 I'm adding a few things that are not technology development in itself but rather supporting domains that can enhance technology use and effect. I do belive that every technological achievment is only as great as our ways and purpose of using it.

Mash-ups
- martin.claesson martin.claesson Nov 17, 2016 A single technology or product is sometimes great but from my experience it's the combination of many things that really makes the difference. By including knowledge from different domains as tech, teaching, learning, cognitive psychology etc. we get a pool of knowledge and concepts that can be mixed, explored and piloted.